Thursday, June 11, 2020

How to Become a Freelance Journalist Tips and Guidance

Whether you’re already a freelance writer or are just starting out, you may be curious as to how to become a freelance journalist. Freelance writing and freelance journalism are slightly different things, and we’ll cover the scope of the differences within this article. Ready to learn how to become a freelance journalist? Read on! What is a Freelance Journalist? First of all, what’s a freelance journalist? What’s the difference between a freelance journalist and a regular journalist? And what’s the difference between a freelance journal and just a plain old freelance writer? Alright, so let’s start at the beginning by defining a journalist. Journalism is, simply put, covering the news. This coverage can be via writing, radio or video, but for the purposes of this article we’re only going to talk about writing. Journalists cover the news, whether it be sports, human interest, national events or even topics like fashion. The style of writing is what’s called â€Å"journalistic.† It’s never written in the first person, and carries a bit of a more professional tone than some other work. Journalists often work for print publications, or for online journals. They are paid an hourly rate or a salary, and in most cases they have to report to an office from time to time. A freelance writer is someone who does not write for a specific company; instead, he works for himself. He will pick up clients for whom he works, or maybe will be hired for a few one-off gigs. Thus, we can derive the job description of a freelance journalist. He writes about the news, whatever topic that news may cover, but does not have an employer. How to Become a Freelance Journalist There are no qualifications you need in order to become a freelance journalist. Well, that’s a lie. There’s one qualification: you need to be able to write. If you’ve got that skill down, there are truly no barriers to your entry into the field of freelance journalism. It’s tough competition, however. Many of us choose to remain freelance writers, taking jobs as they come and establishing a very diverse portfolio. But it’s fair to say that news publications pay better than some writers are currently receiving. As a result, many people attempt to enter freelance journalism. Almost as many fail. There are many who think that entering freelance journalism will be easy, and they fail to refine their craft before they attempt it. They, unfortunately, fail miserably. Talent will prevail in freelance journalism. If you don’t have the skill, you won’t get the job. Aside from honing your craft as a writer, however, there are other ways to improve your chances of becoming a freelance journalist. A quick search of the internet will result in dozens of online communities. Many of those communities are great for networking. Social networking is also a popular choice for freelance journalists. LinkedIn and others will allow you to reach out and advertise your services as a freelance journalist. Be sure to have an online portfolio of your work. Like we said, it’s tough competition out there. You’ll want to be able to prove to your prospective clients that you have what it takes to be a freelance journalist. Freelance Journalism Training Yes, we know that we already told you that you don’t need any special training. However, we also told you to make sure you’re good at what you do. For that, there are training courses available. These training courses are particularly helpful for those who are already freelance writers. A majority of the work that a freelance writer will do is in a more conversational tone. This is especially true for the beginning freelancer who’s writing, say, blog posts every day. If you’ve already got experience as a freelance writer, taking a freelance journalism training will allow you to steer your writing style away from the informal. You’ll learn the ins and outs of journalistic writing, as well as other skills like writing a press release. These courses can be invaluable for those who have never written before, as well. If you have no experience in writing, consider taking a freelance journalism class. There are courses online and in person, and those courses will be a great addition to your resume. Finding Freelance Journalism Jobs Part of becoming a freelance journalist is actually finding the work. That’s where it gets hard. You can be a better writer than James Agee but still never get hired. We’ve said it before and we’ll say it again. You’ve got to market yourself. It’s critical to your success as a freelancer. It’s particularly critical to your success as a freelance journalist. Pitch companies, send emails and make phone calls. Editors at publications don’t know you exist. If you don’t reach out to them, they never will. Again, be sure to have a dazzling, professional portfolio at the ready. There are many sites on the web that you can use to set up a portfolio for free. Your portfolio should include a variety of writing styles, from long form and short form news pieces about anything and everything to editorial pieces. Steer clear of political topics – you don’t want to scare your client off. Feel free to test your writing ability on all kinds of random topics, from the best drum kits to jam with to your take on the latest scandal. It doesnt matter how obscure it is, this is just a test of your ability. No matter how good it is, though, your portfolio alone won’t get you a freelance journalism job. In some cases you’ll be responding to a general ad. For example, a journalism job posted on Monster. But in most cases, you’re going to need to pitch your story. Your pitch is the single-most important aspect of your application. It, like your portfolio, should be meticulously edited, and should match the tone of the publication to which you’re applying. There’s no room for grammatical or spelling errors in your pitch. They’ll be sent to the recycle bin immediately. Perfect your portfolio and practice your pitch. Then head on over to a few freelance journalist message boards, or to social media. Once you land your first freelance journalism job, begin your resume, and you’re off to a great start. It’s competitive, but it really is just as easy as that!

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Inequality in the United States Among Minorities - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1915 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/09/12 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Social Inequality in the United States among Minorities By: CLK Have you ever been treated unfair, not equal because of your race, gender, status, wealth. Every day in this world people are judged and discriminated against just for these things and sometimes for other simple reasons. So many movements have happened in the United States to try and right the wrong of unequal things against minorities. For example women’s suffrage which was the fight for the right for women to vote, they weren’t allowed to vote just based off the fact that they were woman. Another movement was the civil rights movement which if you think about it was not that long ago, it was long overdue, but the movement was not that long ago. As many know it was the fight for the equal justice and treatment of blacks in this country. Being a minority has a broad wide range it is just not black people , or anyone that is not white there are other groups of minorities such as Hispanics, or being a woman, gays and lesbians, religion groups. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Inequality in the United States Among Minorities" essay for you Create order While in this course I have learned so much about many different kinds of social problems in societies around the world and in the United States, such as poverty, social inequality, race and cultural discrimination, gender stratification, environmental damage, population growth, and urbanization. I chose my final essay to be on Social Inequality and the Minorities in the United States. For me this subject raises many points of our daily life and brings us to the point of reality in our world. While we think such things as racism and discrimination are minor things in our bust lives or in our changing world, but those things are still very much alive, maybe just not in the for front like they were once before but they still do exist and very much alive in out country. My paper is going to discuss how minorities are treated unfair or unequal in this country, and what I think we can do to better solve this silent growing problem here in the great United States, for I believe our country has come alone way but we have so much further to go to help and to benefit everyone here, man or woman, black or white, gay or straight. Let’s start off with what are social inequities and what is minorities. Social inequality refers to a lack of social equality, where individuals in a society do not have equal social status. Areas of potential social inequality include voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, the extent of property rights and access to education, health care and other social goods. Inequality is socially created by matching two different kinds of processes. The social roles in society are first matched to ‘reward packages’ of unequal value and individual members of society are then allocated to the positions so defined and rewarded† Social inequality is different from economic inequality but the two inequalities are linked. Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income. While economic inequality is caused by the unequal distribution of wealth, social inequality exists because the lack of wealth in certain areas prohibits th ese people from obtaining the same housing, health care, etc. s the wealthy in societies where access to these social goods depends on wealth. Most Americans have a sense of the presence of inequality. We learn about it in many ways on a daily basis, from our observations of people, homes, cars, neighborhoods, and news accounts of the rich and famous. There is good evidence that we start to learn about inequality at a very early age and accumulate additional knowledge throughout our lives. Most Americans are aware of different forms of inequality. They know about income inequality and the patterns of discrimination against women and racial and ethnic groups. As we prosper through time, inequality is slowly less evident. A lot of people dont realize that although things are improving with time, inequality is still prominent in our society. The people that are failing to realize that there still is inequality are the fortunate ones. They rise well above the poverty line, and usually live relatively economically sound lives. They are the people who are supplied with our societys benefits. The people that are in pursuit of social change, and constantly bring attention to issues of equal rights and privileges, are often the people that do not have them. They are the ones who suffer daily from different levels of inequality. Minorities are people who are a racial, religious, political, national, or other group thought to be different from the larger group of which it is part, which can be a board spectrum of people. Minority groups are made up of people who share a common set of cultural or physical characteristics that marks them as different from the powerful dominant group and for which they often suffer social disadvantages, because of their lack of power. As in the case of race and ethnicity, minority group membership is given by society. The most common minority groups are African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Women. A social inequality that is happening in the United States right now is health care among blacks. For blacks, health inequalities are the cumulative result of both past and current discrimination throughout U. S. culture. Due to discrimination and limited educational opportunities, blacks disproportionately work in low-pay, high-health-risk occupations (e. . , they are migrant farm workers, fast food workers, garment industry workers). (Vernellia). The lack of having a good job really affects the way people are cared for. Having a good job that provides good health care is the key, but like stated by Vernellia a lot of blacks don’t have good paying jobs that offer good health care, they either don’t have any or on public health care, which doesn’t cover much and what it does cover, doesn’ t grantee they proper heath care provider or health care choices. In fact, for blacks, racism is a primary factor. Even when you control for economics, blacks have poorer health. That is, middle-class blacks suffer poorer health than middle-class whites. In fact, middle-class whites live ten years longer than middle-class blacks, while poor whites live only three years longer than poor blacks. (Vernellia). Even though health care right now in the United States is becoming a big issue right now, the point is still clear that they have and have-nots are treated different. People who lack good insurance or insurance at all get the short end of the stick and get the â€Å"just to get you by† health care and health care providers, and most of these people are minorities. This is an issue that needs to be solved for many people are dying before their time just because they didn’t or don’t receive the best health care that is out there. Another big issue that has been hitting the news lately is another inequality here in the United States, and against another minority that a lot of people over look, the LBGT (Lesbian Bisexual, Gay, Transgender) community. These groups of people are normally looked over for their sexual orientation, or sexual preference. Most people over look this group because of some moral/religious views that they have about this group of people and then cast their discrimination upon them, which there for they are subject to is treated unfairly and unequal. As I did my research I came upon an article that was surprising to me, and was about the U. S military and how they deny veterans who are of the LBGT community their rightful benefits from being in the military. This was a shock to me for I know of the â€Å"Don’t ask, Don’t tell policy†, which I think is a disgrace to our country and our military, but to deny a person who put their life forward for a country and then not to receive their rightful benefits because of their sexual preference is ludicrous in my mind. For example: if a service member lives in a state where marriage (Massachusetts, California) or civil unions or domestic partnerships (New Jersey, Vermont, Washington, D. C. , etc. ) are available, they are prohibited by law from taking advantage of those legally recognized relationship statuses while still serving in the military (either on active duty or in the reserves) because of DADT. Once an LGB service member is discharged and becomes a veteran, he or she can marry, enter a civil union, or register as a domestic partner if the state so allows. However, because the Defense of Marriage Act prevents the federal government from recognizing these same sex relationships, spouses and partners of LGB veterans are denied access to death benefits, pension benefits, home loan assistance programs, medical benefits, the commissary, and any other benefits offered to heterosexual veterans. Hecht). That is just one of the unfair things that the U. S military upholds, you would think someone serving the U. S would have the same rights as their fellow heterosexual members have but they don’t. In the article they also mention the paying back of some benefits if military members were to â€Å"come out† to a commander that they will have to pay back all the funds given to them by the military and will receive a bill from the military. Like I mentioned while out country has come a long way, we still clearly have a long way to go. For this is one of the most discriminating things and error in our government, which is supposed to be for all people and not against its people. My research has proven that minority groups are still being treated unfair and unjust, and for many reasons. As we portray ourselves to be Americans and the land of the great American dream and opportunities for all. All are not granted the same things as others. Jobs, benefits, opportunities, education are all subjected to be taken away from the minority groups, which than lessen their success or goal of reaching that American dream, as they seek out to have one day. Our country us a melting pot and has always been that way from the being of time, we all learn from one another and should help one another. The founders’ of the Constitution wanted nothing more than for everyone to have the same opportunity to the joys of life and the joy of the American dream of being successful in life. While out country has come a long way we still have a ways to go, everyone is not equal, everyone is not assured to have the same benefits as other have, and it’s not right, and just like the suffrage movement, the civil right movements, and the movements that will take place in the future or that will occur in the present things have to be changed so that everyone has the same opportunity and benefits that everyone has, because as a American that is their right as a citizen of this wonderful country. References Institutional inequality denying benefits to lesbian, gay and bisexual veterans. Hecht, B Emily (2008) https://search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct=truedb=f5hAN=34796299site=ehost-live Inequality in healthcare is killing African Americans. Vernellia R. Randall (2000) https://search. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/login. aspx? direct=truedb=f5hAN=47903159site=ehost-live* .

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The People s Wish For A Good Life Is Our Goal - 2252 Words

â€Å"The People’s Wish for a Good Life is Our Goal† President Xi Jinping In Guangdong, all of the three poorest counties, Xingning, Dabu and Wuhua are located in Meizhou Muncipality. This widening income disparity between Meizhou and other regions carries in it the seeds of future discontent and could well lead to political instability. The time for action is now. Following Comrade Xi’s message to help people break away from poverty and achieve prosperity, concrete actions against income inequality in Meizhou Municipality are the call of the hour. The key recommendations to bridge income inequality between Meizhou Muncipality and other regions of Guangdong are: (1) Push for equalization of basic public services between urban and rural areas (2) Improve rural infrastructure to create better living conditions as well as a better environment for economic activities (3) strengthen vocational training for rural labourers and improve their ability to be employed in non-farming jobs 2. Causes and Context of Income Inequality in Meizhou Municipality a. Geographical Conditions: There exists a great difference in geographical conditions and natural resources among the Pearl River Delta Area (PRDA) and the Mountainous Areas of Guangdong province. Meizhou, has therefore, not fully benefited from the industrialization of the prosperity of the province, as most industries are based in the PRDA. The development is relatively slow and people lead a relatively poor life. Half of theShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : Make A Wish Foundation1018 Words   |  5 Pages Make-A-Wish Foundation is a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization which helps to fund and provide experiences for children with life-threatening medical conditions. CEO David Williams articulated, â€Å"The vision is not just about a number - it s about real lives and very real wish impact† (Make-A-Wish America, 2016, p. 1). These children must be between the ages of 3 and 17; and must have a physician to assure that they are eligible for the program. It was cr eated in the spring of 1980 after theRead MoreAging Is A Part Of Our Life1487 Words   |  6 PagesAging is a part of our life that the majority of us do not want, but it will happen regardless of what we do. When we are a little kid, all we want to do is grow up and be a big kid. When we become older we realize that wish we never said that, and seem to wish that we could go back in time. We always miss when we were younger, when we could be childish, do stupid things, and people would not think us to be weird. Then, they thought it was adorable, seeing a little kid doing stupid and funny thingsRead MoreEvaluation Of A Good Faith Assessment Of Children With Life Threatening Illnesses And Their Families Essay1402 Words   |  6 PagesPurpose of the Evaluation Wish Granting is at the heart of how MAW GLA serves its community of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families. Time then, is a valuable resource to furthering the organization’s mission. The reach of the organization to all eligible participants is also critical in the objective to enrich the lives of as many individuals as possible in the chapter’s target population. Understanding the importance of these elements, the consultant team would like toRead MoreEssay about Facing Death662 Words   |  3 PagesIn today?s modern society we have a certain distaste for the subject of death. There are people in society feel uncomfortable with the subject of death. The subject of death is a reality that we need to face everyday. There is nothing any of us can do about death, and there is no virtue in dwelling on it or trying to penetrate its mystery. Is it possible to prepare for death? In our day and age as we know it, there have been astounding advancements in medicine. The average life expectancyRead MoreAnalysis Of Equus By Peter Shaffer1214 Words   |  5 Pagessurroundings. It is the ability to understand things beyond our eyes. And what I mean by that is one can see things through their eyes, but consciousness allows one to comprehend it on a deeper level. It leads to how we behave, how we function. The definition of community when I google it, is â€Å"a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.† I would describe community as a group of people who have common goals, thoughts, or interests. In IGE 120, the course themeRead MoreThe Importance Of A Person With Values And Integrity1049 Words   |  5 PagesRicha Dharmesh Jariwala, introduce myself as a person with values and integrity. I believe in simple living with positive attitude. I like to meet people and making friends. My career decision also help me to meet people of different backgrounds, which will enhance my overall personality. I like to live social life with family. I had set rules for my life which provides me direction. Family background: My family consists of six members. My father is a hardworking Business Man. He is very knowledgeableRead MoreEssay About Self And Peer Evaluation Assignment1706 Words   |  7 Pagesevery class/game session. During every session, I spoke on the issue(s) at hand, while referencing the book and the works provided in the book. I understood the goals of my faction and character and tried to persuade others to see the issues the way the Oligarchs saw them. Did you accomplish the goals of your character/ your faction? Explain. During Game Session One, I accomplished my personal goal as well as one of my faction goals of passing the Reconciliation Agreement which stated that we mustRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s On Living The Good Life1537 Words   |  7 PagesDavid Thoreau philosophized about living the good life. According to him, the good life is reached through what can be interpreted as an ever-evolving soul. The ever-evolving soul matures and begins to tune in to spiritual instinct. Epistemologically, Thoreau argues that spiritual instincts are sentiments or feelings that act as a life compass and distinguish the metaphysical aspect of higher laws from the world of being. In order to live the best life, according to Thoreau, one must avoid being overwhelmedRead MoreLife Without Limits1446 Words   |  6 PagesLIFE WITHOUT LIMITS There are some things in life that are out of your control that you cant change and youve got to live with. The choice that we have, though, is either to give up or keep on going. I tell your life is interesting, Life is a JOURNEY. But I tell you there are sometimes in life where you fall down and you feel you dont have the strength to get back up. You see, if you try 100 times to get back up and if you fail 100 times, if you FAIL and youll going to GIVE UP, do you think thatRead MoreEnding The Aid Of Substance Abusers1727 Words   |  7 PagesStates of America is a great nation, with many great opportunities for our country’s vastly diverse citizens. One of these opportunities is the provision of welfare for those citizens that need that little bit of extra help to keep going. However, this welfare is also a cause of great discontent among some of the other citizens of our country. These citizens opposing welfare may sound like they may be cruel or unsympathetic people, but they may have a solid basis for their disagreeing attitude. Some

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Case Study PREPARE ENRICH Essay - 2603 Words

Premarital Marital Counseling David Cook Liberty University December 06, 2014 Case study PREPARE/ENRICH Steve and Cindy When a couple agrees to counseling to help their marriage, one of the first things sought after would be to resolve differences that are weighing heavy on the marriage. In this case, Steve and Cindy have started on a journey through taking the PREPARE/ENRICH program. The tests and answers are detailed to the couples characteristics and personalities and cover the couples strengths and weaknesses. This case study analysis will separate the case into three main topics of discussion. Their strengths and weaknesses will be highlighted first then potential conflicts or problems will be discussed and finally a†¦show more content†¦The potential for growth in these categories could point out the underlying cause for many of the other problems that are present. The category of communication was answered by Steve and Cindy much differently. Their answers did not compliment rather they contradicted each other. The couple agreed that they both were good listeners and they trusted each other but could not always talk to each other because of negative feelings. They also express concern in the inability to express their needs to each other. True feelings are difficult to be expressed because of the lack of understanding. Neither one is satisfied with how they communicate with each other. One barrier to help them overcome and move forward would be to make a decision on how they are satisfied or not and recognize the barriers that are keeping them from communicating. There is some skewed information in the category of conflict resolution. Their answers and the information seem to show the couple in in a cycle that goes on being unresolved. The answers Steve gives shows that he may not value the magnitude of the problems and even set aside some of Cindy’s problems because he feels they do well in conflict management. Cindy’s feelings indicate that she may just give in and allow Steve to think that there is conflict resolution to avoid an argument. Acco rding to the report, Cindy relates that she can share her feelings with Steve and she feels the he understands, but Steve on theShow MoreRelatedTechnology As An Instructional Tool910 Words   |  4 Pagesit should be an integral part of education. For that reason, schools must introduce the use of technology into learning assignments by any means necessary, including professional development opportunities where teachers can learn how to use it to enrich and improve learning. Research has shown that students learn differently based on individual learning styles; for that reason, the use of technology can play a significant role in this process and should be included as a viable teaching strategy toRead MoreEthics Game Delima744 Words   |  3 Pagespractice that could happen in an organization. Leaders are required to take action. 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Taking a Look at Government Surveillance - 2224 Words

Government Surveillance Government Surveillance, a way that the government says that will keep you safe from foreign dangers like terrorist attacks, espionage, and perhaps a international war. However you have to sacrifice your private life, and business for increased protection and surveillance. Government surveillance, defined by as a noun that states â€Å" Close observation or supervision maintained over a person, group, etc, especially one in custody or under suspicion†( the word was also taken from the French word surveiller that means to watch over and was adopted and changed as the English word surveillance. Government surveillance has been with us ever since the start of groups, dynasties, government and more. Back then, in the medieval ages like in the sixteenth century. Surveillance was hardly surveillance at all. Regular people paid by the enemy, or nation diplomats, or just amateur people looking for easy money, all mostly did it. As the timeline grows closer to the present. There are factors that have made up the system that now controversially exists in America as Government Surveillance. The Timeline starts in 1791, when the 13 colonies still existed. But are now rebelling against the British where in that year congress passed down the Bill of Rights and the fourth Amendment saying that it â€Å"protects every and any citizen of America the right to not be searched in house or work in unreasonable cases.† 137 yearsShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at Government Surveillance1776 Words   |  7 PagesGovernment Surveillance The primary goal of the government since its founding has been to ensure the safety of citizens. It has developed an array of methods, procedures, and systems to achieve that goal. Throughout the years there has been some form of criticism regarding its methods. The most recent cause for public disapproval and concern stems from government surveillance brought to the light by former contractor of the National Security Agency (NSA), Edward Snowden. Snowden has brought attentionRead MoreSurveillance And The National Security Agency1729 Words   |  7 Pages There are all different types of surveillance now-a-days. The thought of it has come a long way and it has evolved significantly. There are many pros and cons as to surveillance in today’s world. Also, there are many different ways that technology allows people to get surveillance on many different things such as people, where they go, who they talk to, private information, and so much more. Surveillance and security in the United States has also changed significantly since September 11th, 2001Read MoreThe Government And Its Effects On The Minority Report By Philip K. Dick1399 Words   |  6 Pages The government plays a major role in dystopic stories and novels, and as these stories start to unfold, one can see the flaws in which how government works and how if effects the rest of society. In the Minority Report, written by Philip K. Dick, the mechanisms of the government’s systems begins to show different flaws when surveillance is use to determine the pre-crime of major crimes, and what happens to their citizens once a verdict is reached. Any type of Government surveillance can do moreRead MoreNational Security Agency: Global Surveillance841 Words   |  3 PagesNational Security Agency: Global Surveillance Have you ever pondered on the fact that the government could be observing that text message you just sent to your best friend or what you just looked up on your computer? American citizens were puzzled when they first heard Edward Snowden address the media on the astonishing truths of the NSA and their surveillance. Today, I will undertake both sides of this troubling wrangle, the debate between the supporters and the critics of the NSA. My positionRead MoreSurveillance And The Surveillance Of Surveillance1415 Words   |  6 Pagespersonal information, and surveillance users are unaware is even there. Although this sounds like an invasion of personal privacy and loss of personal liberty, it has turned into the â€Å"norm† and most of the time goes on without even being questioned. In some cases, consensual surveillance has been turned into forms of entertainment. The average person online is very aware of the surveillance taking place, but it is likely they are unaware of th e severity of the surveillance and the justification behindRead MoreThe Problem Of Invading Privacy1321 Words   |  6 PagesThe agency executives taking their seats behind the one-way blackboard, prepared to gain information as their puppets reward the participants with a few dollars or an appreciative sentiment. This situation is echoed within the makeup of our online society, as we are given small benefits and social reasons to allow access to our information, while the government takes in as much data as they can to monitor people and hold them down by their own vices. Through this, the government, commonly referred toRead MoreProtection Vs. Privacy : The Government s Use Of Surveillance1252 Words   |  6 PagesGovernment’s Use of Surveillance Since the industrial revolution, society has continued to grow larger, and more interconnected than ever before. Aiding in this process has been the advancement of technology and ideas. With the extensive advancement of technology, an equally sizable debate on its ethical implications has developed. In recent years an ethical dilemma has arose pertaining to the use of government surveillance. While the increased surveillance of citizens by the government is beneficialRead MoreCensorship Is The Alpha And Omega Of Our Work1281 Words   |  6 PagesIs the Alpha and Omega of Our Work†: Bolshevik Surveillance in Its Pan-European Context’ written by Peter Holoquist, discusses the topic of Surveillance in Russia and how it effected her people. During the time of Stalin – Holoquist believes that surveillance was used to manipulate people, bringing forward ‘the â€Å"new man†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Suny, 52) In this piece – Holoquist states that there was little t race of the belief in public opinion. Instead, the government did what they believed was best, and all shouldRead MoreThe House Of Lords Report On Surveillance, Privacy And The Constitution1140 Words   |  5 PagesThe house of lords report on surveillance, privacy and the constitution is mainly centered on the subject of the government and high ranking officials storing mass amounts of data related to the general public. One of the issues that it touches on is how easy it is for the UK to become a â€Å"surveillance society†. By this they mean the usage of CCTV and data storing getting so routine that the government will know where everyone is at all times. This is a key concern for many people as there are ethicalRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Personal Privacy Up For Grabs By C. Mitchell Shaw1617 Words   |  7 Pages To take away a man’s right to privacy is to take away his right to live. In the totalitarian government of the novel 1984 by George Orwe ll and the article â€Å"Personal privacy up for grabs† by C. Mitchell Shaw, there lies a sense of knowledge that constant watch does not signify safety or true freedom. Rather, both written pieces focus on the belief that a man without the freedom to act in private without observation is not a man at all--his existence is erased in the process. By analyzing

Abstract of Judgement Decision Making Topics Free Essays

Reading 1. 3 (Jackall, R. (1988)) : Looking Up and Looking Around In every corporation the crux of a manager’s charisma is his decision making prowess. We will write a custom essay sample on Abstract of Judgement Decision Making Topics or any similar topic only for you Order Now Though there is an abundance of scientific theories and myths related to decision making, generally decisions are made in a highly rationalized context. A manager would prefer taking decisions that are based on well-formulated and generally agreed upon strategies rather than evaluating all the possible solutions to the problem in hand and then taking a well reasoned decision. In contrast, managers are highly uncomfortable when faced with situations in which there are no specific procedures. Managers vouch for their own safety, safety in terms of reputation and therefore tend to look around and see what others opinions are, the perspective of their superiors. In situations where their reputation is at stake, or huge sums of money involved, or even the company’s goodwill is at stake managers tend to hesitate and wait for an opinion not due to lack of experience but due to fear of failure. Another aspect why managers tend to look around is the accusation or blame time after a problem occurs because there is no means to track down responsibility. As a result of bureaucratic structure higher authorities can easily sneak out of such situations leaving the subordinates hung out to dry. A negative aspect in an organization would be milking a plant which is generally performed by a top level authority in order to maximize gains. The negative aspect in this is of course the organisation bears the brunt of it, moreover at the end of it all, the person assigned the charge of the milked plant eventually becomes the scapegoat. Another aspect is that if focus remains on short term profit it may not be the key to lasting achievements though it may be profitable for a short duration. Likewise individuals look out for their own interests instead of the organisations when there are immediate personal benefits. Experience: In my experience this occasion has occurred a number of times when my manager tends to avoid the risky or rather sticky situations. As a newly appointed sales engineer in a trading firm my manager used to pass on a number of sales quotations to me for processing and finalizing the deal. Since I was fresh to the field of sales I didn’t realize that he was forwarding me these sales orders just because those orders were from clients who weren’t credible enough. Though I managed to get a couple of orders, two of the orders went kaput in terms of payment for which I was held responsible. My manager washed his hands of me accusing me with not consulting him before I plunged to seal the deal. Though on the other profitable orders he too had a take on the credit but the blame only fell on me. Reading 4. 3 (Wildavsky, A. , and Dake, K. (1990)): Theories of Risk Perception: Who Fears What and Why? This article mainly focuses on the outlook of different kinds of people, outlook such as the perception of risk of different products and practices, the diverse effect of a particular practice or event on these different groups, the intensity of the effect on these groups and the varying concerns on an individual basis to a diverse range of risks so as to understand the patterns of risk perception. Fundamentally an individual perceives a hazard as a risk with greater anxiety if his wellbeing is likely to be in danger. If the hazard doesn’t seem to affect him or his beliefs in any way it wouldn’t be of any concern to him though it might be of ample concern to someone else who will be directly affected. By classifying people on the basis of social relations such as hierarchical, egalitarian and individualist, along with the cultural biases that support them, turned out to be the best way to account for the perception of risk. It was found that people who support egalitarianism would be more inclined to risk taking individually but as a social group would be more risk averse, whereas those who favour hierarchy tend to be the opposite. An individualist would be risk taking when it comes to technology as they see an opportunity for growth. These observations were in respect to technology and environment but in terms of personality structure there is no evidence as to variation in risk perception. In spite of these observations one cannot presume that risk taking is preferred by cultures of individualism and hierarchy neither can one presume that egalitarians are always risk averse this is because as risks pertaining to technology and environment are feared by egalitarians in a similar way social deviance is feared by hierarchists and the risk of war is feared by individualists. In conclusion, depending on the object of attention risk perception also varies. Experience: During my tenure in a shipping company as a procurement executive I had once the task to procure water pump for eight ships. Since this was a high priority requirement and involved huge costs I made sure I had researched the market well and decided on a particular brand (Grundfos) even though there was another pump (Davey) that perfectly suited our requirements. The reason was that Davey’s technical support was really bad. So I forwarded the research report to my MD who called for me and told me to go ahead with the purchase of the Davey pump telling me that it was profitable and worthwhile to get our own technicians trained since we could use more of their pumps. To me it seemed like a big risk especially since it involved a huge cost but to him it didn’t seem a risk at all. Reading 6. 1 (Lindblom, C. E. (1959)): The Science of â€Å"Muddling Through† The author compares and contrasts two different approaches to policy making – Rational comprehensive method (Root) and the Successive limited comparisons (Branch) and explains why branch method is a better approach in formulating policies. The root method starts from the fundamentals, improving on the past only if included in a theory. This method cannot be used for complex problems simply because the facts needed require a gigantic compilation of observations. Whereas the branch method continually springs up from the present situation in a step by step manner, varying in small degrees and is more appropriate for complex problems because facts requirements are small and are relevant to the policy. In the root method, initially values or objectives have to be clarified before the alternative policies are examined. Disagreement is unavoidable even when objectives are clearly stated. Another difficulty is ranking of conflicting values since objectives may not have the same relative values. Whereas in the branch method values and policies are selected simultaneously and only incremental values are focussed on making it simpler. Secondly, in the root method, ends are initially chosen in a means-end relationship and means are then developed whereas in branch method means as well as ends are simultaneously chosen. Thirdly, in the root method decisions are termed â€Å"good† if an objective is achieved even when the decision hasn’t been described. In the case of branch method where the objectives are defined only by the incremental values it is still possible to determine if the policy achieved the desired objective. Again in the root method it is impossible to take all factors into consideration due to limitations unless the complex problem is simplified whereas the branch method by limiting the policy comparisons to relevant ones only differing slightly from the current policy the problem is simplified. Finally policy is made and re-made endlessly in the branch method. Nevertheless, branch method does have its disadvantages but is far superior for decision making in complex problems. Experience: In a new start up firm generally new policies are made often or even old ones are amended. During my work as a business development manager in a newly start up firm, I along with another colleague had the major task to formulate policies for my division. We decided to put together basic policies related to our past experience from similar jobs. This served as the base to us and the other employees of the division. There were revisions to these base policies only when there was a need to amend it because it wasn’t working for us or when some mishap happened and a new policy was inevitable. But the fact was that the new policies didn’t vary from the old policies in such a large manner. So it wasn’t difficult for the employees to get accustomed to the new policy. And slowly we managed to put together a solid set of policies. Reading 7. 1 (McIntyre, R. M. Salas, E. (1995)): Measuring and Managing For Team Performance: Emerging Principles From Complex Environments The author of this chapter focuses on a fairly neglected but critical aspect namely teamwork that develops as teams mature over a period of time. The base for this research was military teams but due to the similarities between military and any organisation the findings can be extended to teams in an organisation too. The model formed for this research was The Team Evolution and Maturation (TEAM) Research Paradigm. The TEAM paradigm program observed and measured a number of tactical decision-making teams. Interviews were conducted, data instruments and self-report questionnaire were developed and employed to assist in the research. The data analysed were scanned for evidence of behavioural trends that characterized team performance and the results were presented. Teamwork is the interactive behaviour between members of a team but depending on circumstance may include technical activities. Teamwork consists of four major factors-performance monitoring, feedback, closed-loop communication, back-up behaviour and also performance norms such as team’s self awareness and supporting interdependence among team-mates. Also effective teams modify their behaviour depending on the situation and do change over a period of time. Another category that led to a better understanding of team performance was Team leadership. A team leader must be able to serve as models of teamwork in order to maintain the team’s effectiveness by engaging in teamwork and improving the team performance, being prepared technically, by listening and benefiting from the knowledge of team members, accepting and providing feedback but at the same time being cautious about his leadership style and the respect he commands. The role of each individual team member was also important in this context. Team members should be individually competent so that effective team work can take place but at the same time be aware of the tasks of his team-mate. Also, a team member must not be dependent on an outstanding team member by evading responsibility. Experience: During my career in a software company a team was formed for every project. The team was formed depending on the requirement of the particular phase of the project, budget and duration. The team members were selected based on their experience. Meetings were conducted with the project managers on an individual basis as well as a team. New ideas as well as difficulties faced by each team member were noted. Another method employed by the company was the team appraisal form in which team members rated their team mates in different tasks. At the completion of the project too a review of the performance of the team as well as the project manager was conducted. For the next project the outcomes of these reviews were specially taken into consideration to form another team. What I observed was as a team our performance improved and tasks were completed with less difficulty among team members. Reading 5. 3 (Parkin (2000)): Expert Judgment This reading discusses about how the conceptualization of information can help in retaining information for longer periods of time and achieving expertise. It also classifies the characteristics of an expert and finally whether experts are better judges in their own domain. The short term memory in human beings can only absorb and process few chunks of memory and that too for a short period of time whereas to remember data for a longer period it is necessary to put them in long term memory. Some recent findings have shown that in order to support the short-term memory, experts developed their long term memory thereby overcoming the limited capacity of the short term memory. But again the storage capacity isn’t what makes a difference between a novice and an expert. It is the ability of an expert to visualize and analyse as well as reason the patterns and data in such a way that it provides room for more planning that differentiates him from an amateur. In order to have this ability of an expert, practice seems to be the only solution. Again being an expert in problem solving in a particular domain is not the only skill required by an expert but good planning skill too is critical. By deciding on the right methods and goals based on past experiences experts are more successful in predicting likely outcomes. Thus in order to facilitate quick retrieval of information from the long term memory it is necessary to conceptualize the largely disaggregated data that one acquires during education and training. Through a continuous series of trial, error and reliable feedback, information gets stored in memory and readily available. But in spite of these characteristics experts may not be better judges also in their own domains. An expert’s decision would differ from another one based on his knowledge and experience. But again agreement cannot be the only criteria to judge an expert. Experience: During my career as a computer engineer I had done multiple projects. But I remember one of the projects in the early days of my career which was a fairly complex one. It was a complex one only because in spite of learning that programming language in my undergraduate course and also having been rained for it in the company I had to struggle through the coding because I hadn’t practised it actually. But the irony was that the project manager was quite an expert at it and had an extensive knowledge in that programming language despite the fact that this language came into actual practice long after his graduation. I later came to know that he had successfully completed a number of projects using this program ming language. Thus practice and definitely the multiple projects he executed got him to this level of expertise. Reference 1. UTS November 2002, ‘Judgment and Decision making’, CN2118 Lectures Reading Material. How to cite Abstract of Judgement Decision Making Topics, Papers

Diageo Case Study for Potential Change-

Question: Discuss about theDiageo Case Study for Potential Change Management. Answer: Potential Change Management and Risk Issues It is important for an organization to change management to ensure that there is an achievement of set goals. The change is due to the dynamic external environment. The external environment keeps on changing requiring the management to develop strategies that are flexible to handle the changing business operations. Diageo Company aims at improving the efficiency in production through a review of the human resource functions. The company is supposed to change to come up with leadership and staff that are highly qualified to offer diverse spirit products to the targeted consumers (Jeston Nelis, 2014). Diageo is required to continuously improve the spirit products to have a sustainable competitive edge in the alcoholic beverages industry. The consumers of alcoholic beverages have diverse needs about their drink requiring the management to implement advanced technology in production. Proper leadership in an organization makes it possible to come up with an effective team that will work toward achievement of set goals. The costs of production in Diageo require being revenue to increase the revenue acquired from the sale of alcoholic beverages products. Overall change process Managing change is essential in ensuring that there is a smooth flow of operation of the business. This is where the change is supposed to be integrated into the production of alcoholic beverages production by Diageo Company for the achievement of set market share internationally. The strategies implemented in production and HR department require being accurate to operate in different nations. Diageo has operations over 180 countries requiring developing a company policy that will provide a smooth flow of operations. The management of change process requires analysis of views from the stakeholders of the company (Cavusgil, et al., 2014). The stakeholders have an interest in the production of the requiring the management to implement change that is effective in increasing the revenue from the sale of alcoholic beverages products internationally. Change makes it possible for a company to acquire a competitive edge in the market due to the continuous change of the external business envi ronment. Diageo produces high-quality spirits to the people requiring the management to implement change to deal with the diverse needs of consumers. The overall changes in the organization require considering technology, economy, growth opportunities and consumer needs for the accomplishment of set long-term goals (Boons Ludeke-Freund, 2013). The change is supposed to be helpful to the organization in improving the profitability level. Global strategy change by Diageo is implemented in phases to ensure that there is a proper execution of strategies in different locations of operation. Lessons learned/risk Diageo global strategies are aimed at acquiring a sustainable competitive advantage in the global alcoholic beverages industry. Risk management is essential in business to improve the performance of the company in the international market. Diageo strategies aim at reducing the cost of production of spirit products through the use of technology and proper HR functions. The strategies are implemented in phases to have a stable foundation in the organization due to the difference in the external environment in operating countries (Bohari, et al., 2017). The strategies are implemented by effectively managing the external business environment for the achievement of set long-term goals of production. Diageo has integrated technology in human resource to ensure that there is a quality production of spirits for the targeted global consumers. The technology used in HR is implemented in phases to evaluate the impact of change on the performance of the company. The governance of global strategy requires considering the service offered by the organization and business engagement in the industry (Sparrow, et al., 2016). Diageo strategy focuses on the set vision, mission and company values in ensuring that there is an improved performance in the global market. Proper leadership and teamwork in an organization improve the effectiveness of an organization. Leadership and technology change in Diageo has made it possible for the organization to cut costs by 20% which improves the revenue acquired from sale of spirit brands to the targeted global market. In 2006 the Diageo acquired an increase of 6% of profits from the sale of the 12 top spirits brand produced by the company. Use of technology in production makes it possible to achieve the set long-term goals (Westerman, et al., 2014). Diageo implemented the following strategies in using technology in HR functions; PeopleSoft in February 2004, IS strategy which implemented SAP in August 2004, September 2004 impact of SAP implementation was assessed, July 2005 there was organizational change, September 2005 SAP HR was applied in operation to cut the cost of HR functions. The implementation of technology by Diageo in HR and production made it possible to reduce the cost of production while maximi zing profits. Managing change Change is a process which requires being properly managed to ensure that it has a positive effect on the performance of the business. Diageo implements changes in phases to evaluate the effects of change in production properly. The change in an organization requires providing a competitive edge in the targeted market (Wagner III Hollenbeck, 2014). Diageo implements changes to ensure that there is a continuous improvement of the 12 top spirits brands in the global market. There are three processes in managing change which is preparation, managing and reinforcing the change in the organization (Dawson Andriopoulos, 2014). Preparation is where the stakeholders are required to be identified with the need for change in the organization. Managing change is developing a time frame to implement change for to monitor the effectiveness of the change. Lastly, is reinforcing the change to ensure that there are quality services and products to the consumers for an increase in profitability for the organization. Bibliography Bohari, A., Hin, C. Fuad, N., 2017. The competitiveness of halal food industry in Malaysia: A SWOT-ICT analysis.. Journal of Society and Space, pp. 1-9. Boons, F. Ludeke-Freund, F., 2013. Business models for sustainable innovation: state-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda.. Journal of Cleaner Production, pp. 9-19.. Cavusgil, T. et al., 2014. International business.. s.l.:Pearson Australia.. Dawson, P. Andriopoulos, C., 2014. Managing change, creativity and innovation.. s.l.:Sage.. Jeston, J. Nelis, J., 2014. Business process management.. s.l.:Routledge.. Sparrow, P., Brewster, C. Chung, C., 2016. Globalizing human resource management.. s.l.:Routledge.. Wagner III, J. Hollenbeck, J., 2014. Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage.. s.l.:Routledge.. Westerman, G., Bonnet, D. McAfee, A., 2014. Leading digital: Turning technology into business transformation.. s.l.:Harvard Business Press..